In the early era of
Between the fifth and the seventh century, Hijri established the science of dialectics or scholastic theology through Imam Ghazali, and for his support, in addition to the sciences mentioned above, poetic sciences such as logic, philosophy, etc. they became a necessary ingredient in the Curriculum of Islamic schools and universities.
Although the Muslims came to India in the first century Hijri and there was a fairly good increase in their numbers in the early fifth century Hijri, that is, during the period of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, when in addition to Sindh, the Punjab area was also had included in the Islamic domains, the period of their actual influence begins from the beginning of the seventh century Hijri, which is of the regime of Sultan Shahabuddin Ghuri (597/1191 – 602/1205). It was that period in which in Khurasan, Transoxiana, etc., along with Tafsir and Hadith, Grammar and Syntax, Rhetoric and Literature, Jurisprudence, Logic, Scholastic Theology and Tasawwuf were considered standard learning. Jurisprudence and the principles of jurisprudence had greater importance. Most of the Muslims who had come to India came from these same countries and, therefore, naturally, the arrival of their inclinations was also inevitable. As such, all of these sciences were included and were an integral part of the study programs of this era in India.
Maulana Hakim Sayyid Abdul-Hayy Lakhnavi has set the following four periods of the ancient curriculum of India:
First period started from the seventh century Hijri and its end in the tenth , At time when the second period had begun. For more or less two hundred years, the acquisition of the following disciplines was considered the standard of learning:
Grammar, Syntax, Literature, Rhetoric, Fiqh, Principles of Fiqh, Logic, Scholastic Theology, Tasawwuf, Tafsir and Hadith.
From the details of the Ulema of this class, it is clear that Fiqh and Usul-e-Fiqh were considered the highest criteria of learning and merit in their period. In Hadith, Mashariqul-Anwar’s study was considered sufficient, and for more understanding and experience in Hadith the Masabih was the last.
The gimmick that are seen in the curriculum of this period were the result of the effective taste of the conquerors of India. The people who put the throne of the Islamic state in India had come from Ghazni and Ghaur. These were those places where competition in Fiqh and Usool-e-Fiqh was considered a diploma of distinction; The range of jurisprudential traditions in these countries was very high.
At the end of the ninth century, Hijri, Shaikh Abdullah and Shaikh Azizullah, to raise the previous standard somewhat, introduced the books of Qazi Udhad, Matale and Mawaqif, and the Miftahul Uloom of Sakkaki in the syllabus.
In this age, the disciples of Sayyid Sharif took Sharh-e-Matal’e and Sharh-e-Mawaqif to fashion and the disciples of Zani conventionalized Mutawwal, Mukhtasarul Ma’ani, Talweeh and Sharh-e-Aqa ‘ id-e-Nasafi.
In addition, in this period, Sharh-e-Waqaya and Sharh-e-Jami were also introduced to the curriculum.
At the end of this period, Shaikh Abdul-Haq Muhaddith Dehelvi, having studied the science of Hadith under the instruction of the Ulema of the two holy cities (Mecca and Medina), tried to encourage and highlight the study of science of Hadith. . After him, his son, Shaikh Nurul-Haq, also tried to spread the study of Hadith, but was unsuccessful.
According to the chronicles of the eminent Ulema of this period, even as Sadra and Shams-e-Bazigha are considered the most important books of our time, Miftahul-Uloom of Sukkaki and Matal’e and Mawaqif of Qazi ‘Udhad were considered the last books in his time.
The aspirations of the people had increased due to the change that took place in the curriculum of the second period and now they wanted to raise the level of competence even more. Mir Fathullah arrived in India from Shiraz. The Mughal emperor Akbar welcomed him and awarded him the Udhadul-Mulk title. He made some new additions to the earlier study programs that the Ulema readily accepted.
Hazrat Shah Waliullah, who was the last, but the most illustrious divine of this era, went to the holy cities (Mecca and Madina) and, for fourteen months, completed the study of Hadith science under the instruction of Shaikh Abu Tahir . Kurdi. When he returned to India, he disseminated it so assiduously that its effects still persist. Hazrat Shah Waliullah and his capable children and descendants, for their effort and effort, made the teaching and teaching of Sihah Sitta an integral part of the curriculum.
Shah Sahib had also structured a new course of study. But in those days the center of gravity of knowledge had moved from Delhi to Lucknow. In addition, the new relationship that had developed with Iran during the Humayun and Akbar period had gradually produced a new change in academic taste in India. Through the influence of the Iranian nobles and the Ulema of the Mughal Court, logic and philosophy, which were considered ab initio as the highest learning criterion in Iran, gained superiority, slowly but steadily, over other sciences; and therefore, Shah Sahib’s restructuring of the course could not gain popularity in general.
The fourth period began from the 12th century Hijri. Its founder was Mulla Nizamuddin Sahalvi, who was contemporary with Hazrat Shah Waliullah. The curriculum known as “Dars-e Nizami”, which is current today in all Arab schools, is a relic of it. Adding something else to the curricula of the third period, Mulla Nizamuddin prepared a new curriculum.
The great peculiarity of this program is that more attention has been paid to the creation of depth of comprehension and reading power in the student, and although immediately after completing this course, no competence is acquired in any particular subject, this is very important. the skill is surely created so that, through independent reading and work, one can acquire competence in any subject of their liking. The standard of Hadith and Tafsir in this course is not very high either, and no books are included in the literature.
By the middle of the thirteenth century, Hijri had three centers of thought of education in India: Delhi, Lucknow and Khairabad. Although the curricula of the three were somewhat common, the views of the three were different. More attention was being paid to Hadith and Tafsir in Delhi. The family of Hazrat Shah Waliullah was assiduously engaged in the dissemination and teaching of the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and the noetics occupied a secondary position. In Lucknow, the ancient tenor Hijri of the 7th century was dominant over the Ulema of Farangimahal: Fiqh and the Principles of Fiqh had been more important in its center. In Tafsir, Jalalayn and Baizavi, and in Hadith, Mishkatul-Masabih alone, they were considered sufficient. The academic subject in the center of Khairabad was virtually restricted to logic and philosophy; These subjects were taught with such care and assurance that the teaching of all other sciences had almost been eclipsed before them.